Monday, February 6, 2017


Neo-Darwinists believe that selection is a creative force that drives evolution. But there is a severe problem with this view. If there is some change that makes the organism better, then it will be maintained by selection. If there is a new improvement that can take place in one step, then that improvement will again be maintained by selection, and so on, until there is no more improvements possible. Evolution under hard selection pressure tends to stagnate at a suboptimal state. After a period at this state only deleterious changes are possible. There may be neutral mutations, but none of them lead to any improvement as the next stage, else they would have been tested already. What is needed for progressive evolution to proceed is a control system that can allow further improvement. By controlling selection this system can allow further trial-and-error. The key to progressive evolution is therefore the smartness of this control system. I have called it "the contra-Darwinistic system". Contra-Darwinism is not in conflict with Darwin’s theories, but I have called in contra-Darwinism because it is in conflict with the neo-darwinistic view that selection is a progressive force. By seeing selection as a maintenance force that has to be controlled to allow evolution, it is much easier to understand how biological systems can be improved to become very ingenious systems. And it is also possible to understand the creation of novelties in life. Contra-Darwinistic systems are present in various variants in different forms of life. Those that are most efficient are found in the organisms that have evolved in the most ingenious ways.

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