|Many events||enigmatic/||Many events|
|Once, spontaneous, enigmatic||complex||Many events|
|Complex, enigmatic||Complex, enigmatic|
|Many events||Many events|
|Gradual, reverse||Gradual, reverse|
Friday, March 24, 2017
What is the right level of complexity for evolving systems
(prerelease) In some cases, e.g. in physics, scientists have found solutions that explain observations extremely much better than traditional ones. ....Example geocentric. .. Later, Newton showed that the orbits could be described by the same forces and equations for motion that are valid on the Earth surface. In evolution, there was at Aristotle’s time a lot of different for origin of life and evolution. They thought that there were multiple origins and conversions of life forms, so origin and evolution was quite intervened (??). Darwin simplified the thinking by postulating just one origin. He also disregarded some of the evolution theories, most notably those with saltational effect, such as origins of new species by conversions (metamorphoses) during the night. And he also disregarded teleological effects. Instead he added one mechanism that Aristotle had disregarded, the effect of selection. After Darwin, especially during the last past of the twentieth century, a further reduction became quite popular. In this reduction the source of novelties was also disregarded. The reduced theory works well in the short run on isolated populations, and it is almost impossible to prove experimentally that it does not work in the long run. Therefore the notion(?) has been widespread that this simplified evolution (or rather adaptation) system works also in the long run. Occam described a method to judge how complex an explanation needs to be. It is known as Occam’s razor. According to this principle we should choose the simplest possible explanation, but it should not be so simple that it does not explain everything in the system(??). The simplest possible system that explains evolution is probably Darwin’s system of evolution based on inheritance, variation and selection. The problem, as also Darwin noted, is to describe how variation occurs. Life consists of cellular systems, some that contain a nucleus and organelles, and some that are similar to organelles. The latter are the bacteria. An early evolution stage was the one that created this configuration. Originally life most probably consisted of just single membrane systems. These may have been most similar to the complex variant, eukaryotes, or they could have been similar to bacteria. A theory based on bacteria as the most primitive, some process to convert these to eukaryotes and import of bacteria to become some of the organelles is a dominant theory. That is the endosymbiont theory. There are variants of the theory, e.g. based on how much of the evolution from bacteria to eukaryotes took place before and how much after the endosymbiosis event. And there are variants based on which organelles are involved and at what state of evolution of these the endosymbiosis took place.